top of page
  • CCS

ISAs for Smaller Audits

Updated: Dec 28, 2022


ISAs do not distinguish the audit approach required for a one-person entity from that required for a multinational entity employing thousands of people.


An audit is an audit.


Consequently, the basic approach to an audit does not change just because the entity is small.



The word “audit” is intended to convey a clear message to users of financial statements.


That message is that the auditor has obtained reasonable assurance that the financial statements are free from material misstatements, regardless of the size or type of the entity that has been audited.


对一个人的实体所要求的审计方法和对一个雇用数着千人的跨国实体所要求的审计方法,《国际审计准则》并没有去作出区分。


审计就是审计。


因此,审计的基本方法并不因为实体的规模小而改变。


"审计"一词的目的是向财务报表的使用者传达一个明确的信息。


这个信息就是,无论被审计的实体的规模或类型如何,审计师已经获得了财务报表不存在重大错报的合理保证。



This issue of proportionality was addressed by IAASB staff in a Staff Questions and Answers document, entitled Applying ISAs Proportionately with the Size and Complexity of an Entity, issued in August 2009.


Its purpose is to assist auditors in applying the clarified ISAs in a cost-effective manner.


IAASB 工作人员在2009年8月发布的题为《根据实体的规模和复杂性适度应用国际审计准则》的工作人员问答文件中讨论了这个比例问题。


其目的是协助审计师以具有成本效益的方式应用明晰化 (Clarity) 的国际审计准则。


The response to the question “How do the ISAs address the fact that the characteristics of an SME are significantly different from those of a larger, more complex entity” was as follows:


对于"中小企业与更大、更复杂的实体的特点有很大不同,《国际审计准则》要如何处理这一问题",答复如下:

“The auditor’s objectives are the same for audits of entities of different sizes and complexities.


This, however, does not mean that every audit will be planned and performed in exactly the same way.


The ISAs recognise that the specific audit procedures to be undertaken to achieve the auditor’s objectives and to comply with the requirements of the ISAs may vary considerably depending on whether the entity being audited is large or small and whether it is complex or relatively simple.


"对于不同规模和复杂程度的实体的审计,审计师的目标是相同的。


然而,这并不意味着每项审计都将以完全相同的方式进行计划和实施。


《国际审计准则》认识到,为实现审计师的目标和遵守《国际审计准则》的要求而采取的具体审计程序可能会因被审计的实体是大是小,是复杂还是相对简单而有很大的不同。


The requirements of the ISAs, therefore, focus on matters that the auditor needs to address in an audit and do not ordinarily detail the specific procedures that the auditor should perform.


The ISAs also explain that the appropriate audit approach for designing and performing further audit procedures depends on the auditor’s risk assessment.


For example, based on the required understanding of the entity and its environment, including its internal control and the assessed risks of material misstatement, the auditor may determine that a combined approach using both tests of controls and substantive procedures is an effective approach in the circumstances in responding to the assessed risks.


因此,《国际审计准则》的要求侧重于审计师在审计中需要处理的事项,通常不详细说明审计师应执行的具体程序。


《国际审计准则》还解释说,设计和执行进一步审计程序的适当审计方法取决于审计师的风险评估。


例如,根据对该实体及其环境的必要了解,包括其内部控制和评估的重大错报风险,审计师可以确定,在这种情况下,使用控制测试和实质性程序的综合方法是应对评估风险的有效方法。

In other cases, for example, in the context of an SME audit where there are not many control activities in the SME that can be identified by the auditor, the auditor may decide that it is efficient to perform further audit procedures that are primarily substantive procedures.


It is also important to note that the ISAs acknowledge that the appropriate exercise of professional judgment is essential to the proper conduct of an audit.


Professional judgment is necessary, in particular, regarding decisions about the nature, timing, and extent of audit procedures used to meet the requirements of the ISAs and gather audit evidence.


在其他情况下,例如,在中小企业审计中,审计师可以确定的中小企业的控制活动不多,审计师可以决定有效地执行


进一步的审计程序,主要是实质性程序。


同样重要的是要注意,《国际审计准则》承认,适当地行使专业判断对于正确地进行审计是至关重要的。


专业判断是必要的,特别是在决定审计程序的性质、时间和范围方面。


专业判断是必要的,特别是关于用于满足《国际审计准则》的要求和收集审计证据的审计程序的性质、时间和范围的决定。


However, while the auditor of an SME needs to exercise professional judgment, this does not mean that the auditor can decide not to apply a requirement of an ISA except in exceptional circumstances and provided that the auditor performs alternative audit procedures to achieve the aim of the requirement.”


然而,虽然中小企业的审计师需要进行专业判断,但这并不意味着审计师可以决定不适用《国际审计准则》的某项要求,除非在特殊情况下,并且审计师执行替代的审计程序以实现该要求的目的。"



The key points in the excerpt above can be summarised as follows:

  • Audit objectives are the same for any size of audit;

  • The specific audit procedures required may vary considerably depending on the size of entity and the assessed risks;

  • The ISAs focus on matters the auditor needs to address — not on the details of specific procedures;

  • The design of further audit procedures depends on the auditor’s risk assessment;

  • The appropriate exercise of professional judgment is essential in tailoring the procedures to respond appropriately to the assessed risks; and

  • Professional judgment cannot be used to avoid compliance with any ISA requirements except in exceptional circumstances.

上述摘录中的关键点可以概括为以下几点:-

  • 审计目标对于任何规模的审计都是一样的。

  • 所需的具体审计程序可能有很大的不同,这取决于实体的规模和所需的具体审计程序可能会有很大的不同,这取决于实体的规模和评估的风险。

  • 《国际审计准则》的重点是审计师需要处理的事项--而不是具体程序的细节。

  • 进一步审计程序的设计取决于审计师的风险评估。

  • 适当行使专业判断对于调整程序以适当应对评估的风险至关重要;以及

  • 除非在特殊情况下,不能用专业判断来避免遵守《国际审计准则》的任何要求。


Some suggestions | 一些建议

In addition, the ISAs contain a number of paragraphs that address considerations specific to audits of SMEs.


Some suggestions for successfully implementing ISAs on smaller engagements are included below.


此外,《国际审计准则》包含一些段落,涉及对中小企业审计的具体考虑。